Signal processing consists of representation and transformation of signals and the information that they carry. Over the years, signal processing has immensely developed to provide phenomenal growth in the area of microchips, digital systems and computer hardware.The applications of signal processing are vast and interdisciplinary-ranging from engineering to economics and astronomy to biology.The research in areas such as signal coding and de-noising have paved the path for these advancements.
Recent decade has witnessed major revolution in communication and processing of digital media. As a consequence, solution to major problems in processing, transmission and reception have made signal processing an integral part of modern electronic and communication systems. Communication on the other hand plays major role in our day to day life. The communication technology helps in the advancement of modern systems to meet our need of efficient exchange of ideas.
Vision is the most powerful of the five human senses. Visual information, conveyed in the form of images gives better impact than textual information. The growth of digital image processing has been fueled by technological advances in digital imaging, computer processors and mass storage devices. Research and development of image processing technologies have advanced very rapidly in the past decade. Digital image processing is concerned primarily with the extraction of useful information from images. In this process, it also deals with 1) image representation, 2) enhancing the quality of an image, 3) restoration of the original image from its degraded version, and 4) compression of the large amount of data in the images for efficient archiving and retrieval.Image-processing algorithms can be classified into three different categories. At the lowest level, the algorithm deals directly with the raw pixel values (image denoising and edge detection are good examples). In the middle level, the algorithm utilizes low-level results for processes such as segmentation and edge linking. At the highest level, the algorithm attempts to extract semantic information from those provided by the lower levels. Examples of high-level algorithms are handwriting recognition, face recognition and machine vision algorithms.
The area of VLSI design has gained enormous popularity over the past few decades due to the rapid advancements in integrated circuit (IC) design and technology. The ability to produce miniaturized circuits with high performance in terms of power and speed is the reason for its popularity. Low production cost and advanced techniques for reduced time-to-market adds to the ever-growing demand for ICs. The two major IC design flows – FPGA and ASIC have their own advantages and disadvantages. FPGAs are widely used for quick prototyping and also implementation of various multimedia applications by compromising power, area and speed performance with substantially reduced time-to-market and cost factors. Using ASIC technology, it has been possible to develop high performance multi-core processors. Verification and testing of such complex designs is a critical and challenging task to ensure the quality of the resulting circuits. The advances in EDA software and CAD tools alleviate the effort necessary to carry out the cumbersome design and verification process of ICs
Electromagnetism is one of the fundamental forces of the universe, responsible for everything from electric and magnetic fields to light. Originally, scientists believed that magnetism and electricity were separate forces. But by the late 19th century, this view changed, as research demonstrated conclusively that positive and negative electrical charges were governed by one force (i.e. magnetism). Electromagnetism has created a great revolution in the field of engineering applications. In addition, this caused a great impact on various fields such as medical, industrial, space, etc. There are enormous practical application of electromagnetism can be found in everyday life from domestic appliances to research and industrial applications.